Many times, I have said a major problem I have with narrative or postliberal theology is its cruelty. It tends to treat life-impairing suffering as an unfortunate necessity. God Himself (merely) “understands” or is “present”, yet this world “is going to claim more and more victims”. Of course, (they say) it is going to get better. In the interim, however, “necessarium est ut scandala eveniant.” The scandal is necessary. So wrote Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, who foreshadowed narrative theology. Such thinking may be bearable in North America or Europe, but in Africa it is cruel. OBSERVATION: Contrast this with the interventionist God of Africa. My first quotes above are from Jürgen Moltmann and Letty Russell.